Two-dimensional material photodetector for hybrid silicon photonics
HU Si-qi, TIAN Rui-juan, GAN Xue-tao
2021, 14(5): 1039-1055. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0003
Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide new development opportunities for silicon-based integrated optoelectronic devices due to their unique structure and excellent electronic and optoelectronic properties. In recent years, 2D material-based photodetectors for hybrid-integrated silicon photonics have been widely studied. Based on the basic characteristics of several 2D materials and the photodetection mechanisms, this paper reviews the research progress of silicon photonic integrated photodetectors based on 2D materials and summarizes existing device structure and performance. Finally, prospects for strategies to obtain high-performance silicon photonic integrated 2D material photodetectors and their commercial applicability are presented with considerations for large-scale 2D material integrations, device structure, and metal-semiconductor interface optimizations, as well as emerging 2D materials.
Research progress on coherent synthesis of optical frequency comb
MA Jun-chao, MENG Li-li, ZHANG Rui-xue, ZHUO Xiao, NI Kai, WU Guan-hao, SUN Dong
2021, 14(5): 1056-1068. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0071
Optical Frequency Comb (OFC) possesses unique time(frequency) domain characteristics such as narrow pulse width, high frequency precision, stable frequency comb teeth and well-defined optical coherence, etc. Therefore, it has become a hot research topic in various fields including ultra-fast laser technology and metrology science in recent years. Meanwhile, OFC has also been developed into an important scientific research instrument. Recently, a novel light source based on the coherent synthesis of OFCs has been developed, which can realize the periodical, high-speed (up to radio frequency) and stable modulation of the polarization or the orbital angular momentum of light. In this review, we try to introduce recent developments on the fundamental principles, experimental techniques and characterization methods of the novel light source based on the coherent synthesis of OFCs, starting from the basic concepts of OFC and mainly covering two aspects: polarization modulation and orbital angular momentum modulation respectively. We also try to provide some perspectives on the applications of OFC based on the coherent synthesis techniques in the fields of solid-state spectroscopy, optical manipulation and the interaction between light and matter, etc.
Progress of tunable micro-nano filtering structures
YU Xiao-chang, XU Ya-qing, CAI Jia-chen, YUAN Meng-qi, GAO Bo, YU Yi-ting
2021, 14(5): 1069-1088. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0044
Because of the large size and immobility working modes, traditional spectral imaging systems struggle to meet increasingly complex practical needs. Tunable micro-nano filtering structures show unique advantages for their lighter weight and greater flexibility, so they are promising candidates for achieving adaptive and intelligent operation in the future. This article summarizes a variety of tunable filtering methodologies and their operational principles both in domestic and foreign research within the last several years. It illustrates static tunable methods such as utilizing liquid crystal and phase-change materials, some dynamic tunable filtering structures such as Fabry-Pérot cavity, micro-nano tunable grating as well as some driving approaches like mechanical stretching, electrostatic driving, optical driving, etc. Meanwhile, this article also introduces some frontier researches based on microfluidic chips and graphene. In the end, it discusses the barriers, challenges and future trends of development for tunable micro-nano filtering structures.
Research progress of elastic emission machining in optical manufacturing
LI Jia-hui, HOU Xi, ZHANG Yun, WANG Jia, ZHONG Xian-yun
2021, 14(5): 1089-1103. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0022
The requirements of modern optical engineering in fields such as deep ultraviolet lithography, extreme ultraviolet lithography and advanced light sources drive the continuous development of advanced optical manufacturing technology. Modern optical engineering requires the surface roughness of ultra-smooth optical components to reach the atomic level and the surface shape profile error in the full spatial frequency to reach RMS(Root Mean Square) sub-nanometer or even a few dozen picometers. This drives the manufacturing requirements of ultra-smooth optical components to approach the processing limits. At present, there are still technical challenges to achieve the ultra-smooth polishing technology and equipment required for the above ultra-high precision needs. Atomic level ultra-smooth polishing of complex surfaces such as cylinders, ellipsoids and toroids is still a primary direction of research at both domestically and abroad. Elastic emission machining is an atomic-level ultra-smooth processing method with stable removal functionality and ultra-low subsurface defect creation, which can be used for manufacturing optical components with the above-mentioned accuracy requirements. We summarize the research progress of elastic emission machining and equipment at both domestically and abroad, the principles of elastic emission machining which contains fluid characteristics, the movement characteristics of polishing particles and chemical characteristics, the equipment of elastic emission machining, and the factors affecting the improvement of surface roughness and material removal rate of elastic emission machining. Then we analyze the problems faced by elastic emission machining and equipment and look forward to their prospects. It is expected that this paper will provide a reference for the further development and application of elastic emission machining.
Budget analysis of focus control in advanced lithography (I) -optical path
ZHONG Zhi-jian, LI Chen-yi, LI Shi-guang, GUO Lei, WEI Ya-yi
2021, 14(5): 1104-1119. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0033
As the technology node of large-scale integrated circuits continues to shrink, the focus control of the lithographic tools becomes particularly difficult. In order to ensure the exposure quality of wafers, it is necessary to quickly and accurately adjust the wafer in the Depth of Focus (DOF) to a degree as small as few dozen of nanometers. For this reason, people need to carefully analyze the various factors that cause defocusing or process window changes in the lithographic process, make a reasonable focus control budget, and control the various error factors within a certain range. This paper focuses on Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, reviews the factors that affect focus control in the optical path of an advanced EUV lithographic tool and summarizes their principles, simulation and experimental results. It can provide a reference when conducting advanced lithography focus control budget research.
Research progress of tunable fiber light sources with wavelength near 1 μm
DANG Wen-jia, GAO Qi, LI Zhe, LI Gang
2021, 14(5): 1120-1132. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0125
Tunable fiber light sources with wavelength near 1 μm are widely used in optical fiber sensing, laser cooling, photochemical, spectroscopy and medical fields. They have thus become an area of focus in fiber light source research in recent years. The development history of fiber light sources with wavelength tuning ability is firstly summarized systematically. Then, their problems and possible solutions are analyzed. Finally, the future developments of tunable fiber light sources near 1 μm are prospected.
Research progress of optical chaos in semiconductor laser systems
KUANG Shang-qi, GUO Xiang-shuai, FENG Yu-ling, LI Bo-han, ZHANG Yi-ning, YU Ping, PANG Shuang
2021, 14(5): 1133-1145. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0216
Chaotic lasers are widely used in secure communication, lidar, optical detection and other applications due to their noise-like randomness, excellent anti-interference and other advantages. Moreover, as semiconductor lasers have small size, stable structure and other advantages, it has become one of the main lasers to produce optical chaos. However, the chaotic laser output from conventional optical feedback semiconductor lasers has the problems of narrow signal bandwidth and delay characteristics, which seriously affect their applications. With consideration for these problems, a comprehensive introduction to reduce the delay characteristics and optimize the chaotic laser bandwidth are reviewed based on recent literatures. This paper also summarizes the research progresses of chaotic secret communication, which is very important in the synchronization of chaotic lasers. The chaotic output of semiconductor lasers and the applications of chaotic lasers are also summarized, and then their development and potential future applications are discussed.
Review of augmented reality display technology
SHI Xiao-gang, XUE Zheng-hui, LI Hui-hui, WANG Bing-jie, LI Shuang-long
2021, 14(5): 1146-1161. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0032
Augmented reality (AR) display technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and has become a research hotspot and development focus of the global information technology industry. It has the potential to revolutionize the ways we perceive and interact with various digital information. Recent advances in micro-displays and optical technologies offer new development directions to further advance AR display technology. This review analyzes the optical requirements of human visual systems for AR head-mounted displays and compares them with current specifications of AR head-mounted displays to demonstrate their current levels of development and main challenge. The basic principles and parameters of various micro-displays and optical combiners in AR head-mounted displays are introduced to explain their advantages and practicability, and their development trends are summarized.
Coupling between Meta-atoms: a new degree of freedom in metasurfaces manipulating electromagnetic waves
LIN Jing, LI Qi, QIU Meng, HE Qiong, ZHOU Lei
2021, 14(4): 717-735. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0030
Nanophotonic systems have attracted tremendous attention due to their exotic abilities to freely control electromagnetic (EM) waves. In particular, much attention has been given to metasurfaces consisting of multiple plasmonic/dielectric meta-atoms coupled in different ways. Compared to simple systems containing only one type of resonator, coupled photonic systems exhibit more fascinating capabilities to manipulate EM waves. However, despite the great advances already achieved in experimental conditions, theoretical understandings of these complex systems are far from satisfactory. In this article, we summarize the theorized tools for developing nanophotonic systems including both coupled resonators and periodic metasurfaces. We aim to understand the EM properties in closed and open systems, and introduce methods of employing them to design new functional metasurfaces for various applications. We will mainly focus on works done in our own group and we hope that this short review can provide useful guidance and act as a reference for researchers in related fields.
Topological circuit: a playground for exotic topological physics
LIU Shuo, ZHANG Shuang, CUI Tie-jun
2021, 14(4): 736-753. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0095
Exploring topological phases of matter and their exotic physics appeared as a rapidly growing field of study in solid-state electron systems in the past decade. In recent years, there has been a trend on the emulation of topological insulators/semimetals in many other systems, including ultracold quantum gases, trapped ions, photonic, acoustic, mechanical, and electrical circuit systems. Among these platforms, topological circuits made of simple capacitive and inductive circuit elements emerged as a very competitive platform because of its highly controllable degrees of freedom, lowercost, easy implementation, and great flexibility for integration. Owing to the unique advantages of electrical circuits such as arbitrary engineering of long-range hopping, convenient realization of nonlinear, nonreciprocal, and gain effects, highly flexible measurement, many of the nonlinear, non-abelian, and non-Hermitian physics can be potentially realized and investigated using the electrical circuit platform. In this review, we provide the first short overview of the main achievements of topological circuits developed in the past six years, primarily focusing on their theoretical modeling, circuit construction, experimental characterization, and their distinction from their counterparts in quantum electronics and photonics. The scope of this review covers a wide variety of topological circuits, including Hermitian topological circuits hosting nontrivial edge state, higher-order corner state, Weyl particles; higher dimensional topological circuits exhibiting nodal link and nodal knot states; non-Hermitian topological circuits showing skin effects, gain and loss induced nontrivial edge state; self-induced topological edge state in nonlinear topological circuit; topological circuit having non-Abelian gauge potential.
Application of chromatic aberration control of metalens
LIN Ruo-yu, WU Yi-fan, FU Bo-yan, WANG Shu-ming, WANG Zhen-lin, ZHU Shi-ning
2021, 14(4): 764-781. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0096
Metasurface consists of the arrangement of the specially designed subwavelength nano units, which is the two-dimensional counterpart of metamaterial. Metasurface can modulate the electromagnetic field on a microscopic scale to allow the arbitrary wavefront manipulation. At present, it has been used to flexibly control various optical parameters such as phase, polarization, and amplitude. Among all of the applications based on metasurfaces, metalens is no doubt one of the most important and basic research interset. Because its thickness is on the order of wavelength, compared with traditional optical lenses, it can significantly increase the integration of optical devices and reduce the systematic complexity. However, the chromatic aberration caused by the inherent dispersion of the material of the unit structure and the diffraction effect of the structural geometry will severely influence the imaging quality of the metalens, and hence isolating us from a rich variety of advanced applications. Herein, we firstly discuss the principle of controlling chromatic aberration with metalens. Then we review several important imaging applications, including discrete wavelength achromatic, broadband focus imaging, light field imaging and other important imaging systems. Finally, this article makes some prospects for the incoming development direction and potential applications of metalens.
Optical vortices in nanophotonics
LI Chen-hao, MAIER Stefan A., REN Hao-ran
2021, 14(4): 792-811. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0066
In the last two decades, optical vortices carried by twisted light wavefronts have attracted a great deal of interest, providing not only new physical insights into light-matter interactions, but also a transformative platform for boosting optical information capacity. Meanwhile, advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology lead to the emerging field of nanophotonics, offering an unprecedented level of light manipulation via nanostructured materials and devices. Many exciting ideas and concepts come up when optical vortices meet nanophotonic devices. Here, we provide a minireview on recent achievements made in nanophotonics for the generation and detection of optical vortices and some of their applications.
Twisted van der Waals materials for photonics
ZHENG Jia-lu, DAI Zhi-gao, HU Guang-wei, OU Qing-dong, ZHANG Jin-rui, GAN Xue-tao, QIU Cheng-wei, BAO Qiao-liang
2021, 14(4): 812-822. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0023
Polaritons are half-light, half-matter quasi-particles formed by the interaction of light and different polarons. They can be applied for light-control at sub-wavelength scales and have shown intriguing potential for optical imaging, enhanced nonlinear optics and novel metamaterial design. Recent advances in the twistronics of two-dimensional van der Waals materials have enabled a vast variety of extraordinary phenomena associated with moiré physics, which also inspired new direction for the research of polaritons. In this article, we briefly review the rise of “twist-photonics”, including plasmon polaritons in twisted graphene system, exciton polaritons in a twisted transition-metal dichalcogenide system and phonon polaritons in a twisted h-BN and α-MoO3 system. Twist van der Waals materials may offer new directions to manipulate light-matter interactions at nanoscale.
Research progress of aberration analysis and imaging technology based on metalens
LIU Yi-tian, CHEN Qi-kai, TANG Zhi-yuan, ZHAO Qing, PIAN Si-jie, LIU Xin-hang, LIN Hong-tao, HAO Xiang, LIU Xu, MA Yao-guang
2021, 14(4): 831-850. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0014
Traditional optical lenses and optical systems implement electromagnetic wave control based on the light propagation effect. So they usually suffer from the bulky size. Recently, metasurfaces comprised of artificial subwavelength structures have been widely studied, since they take great advantages of their subwavelength thickness and provide arbitrary control of electromagnetic waves. Here, the electromagnetic wave control mechanism is introduced. Then, we analyze the monochromatic aberrations and chromatic aberrations of the metalens and the corresponding image quality evaluation methods. Also, we discuss the research progress and applications of metalens for imaging. The exist problems and future goals are pointed out at the end of the review. Based on the advantages of portability and a high degree of design freedom, metalens are expected to replace the traditional imaging devices in many applications. High efficiency, large field of view, broadband, reconfigurable and tunable imaging devices based on metasurfaces will help in important future development directions.
Principle and application of metasurface optical field modulation of atomic layer thickness
LI Hao, HU De-jiao, QIN Fei, LI Xiang-ping
2021, 14(4): 851-866. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0069
Metasurfaces, composed of subwavelength-scale artificial nanostructures, can realize the versatile modulation of multiple attributes of light such as amplitude, phase and polarization, providing an excellent platform for nanophotonic devices. As a new type of layered material, 2D materials manifest peculiar optical and electrical properties compared to 3D bulk materials. The combination of 2D materials with metasurfaces offers new possibilities for the development of nanoscale planar optical devices. This paper reviews the development of metasurfaces based on 2D materials with atomic thicknesses, introduces the mechanism of light field modulation of various 2D material metasurfaces. An outlook on the challenges and potential applications for the development of atomic layer thickness metasurfaces are provided finally.
Deformable optical metasurfaces with dynamic reconfiguration
HONG Xiao-rong, CHEN Shan-shan, LI Jia-fang
2021, 14(4): 867-885. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0036
As one type of novel two-dimensional artificial micro-nano structure, metasurfaces have exhibited strong potential for application in light manipulation in recent decades. However, there is a substantial calling for next-generation optical metasurfaces endowed with remarkable reconfiguration capabilities for practical applications in increasingly miniaturized and integrated opto-electronic devices. In this paper, we review the recent progress of deformable optical metasurfaces mainly fabricated by focused-ion-beam-based nano-kirigami and focus on their excellent performance and applications in the active control of phase, polarization, optical chirality, nonlinear radiation, etc. Deformable metasurfaces with their exceptional flexibility and reconfigurability provide a novel and feasible strategy for the design of functional micro-nano-optoelectronic devices, and immensely promote the development of emerging strainoptronics.
Research development of amplitude-modulated metasurfaces and their functional devices
FU Rao, LI Zi-le, ZHENG Guo-xing
2021, 14(4): 886-899. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0017
Metasurfaces, a kind of artificial planar material with subwavelength feature sizes, have attracted much attention in recent years because they can precisely and flexibly manipulate the amplitude, phase, polarization, frequency and spectrum of incident electromagnetic waves at the subwavelength scale. Since amplitude is one of the fundamental properties of a lightwave, in this article, we focus on investigating the mechanism of amplitude-modulated metasurfaces. Amplitude modulation is carried out mainly by varying the sizes and orientation angles of nanostructures. In addition, the progress and applications of functional devices based on amplitude-modulated metasurfaces are summarized and discussed in detail. This article shows that amplitude-modulated metasurfaces have the advantages of flexible designs, simple fabrication, powerful functionality and are suitable for easily merging other optical property modulations. Amplitude-moderated metasurfaces have important research value and broad application prospects in the fields of high-resolution image display, high-density information storage, information encryption, information multiplexing, beam shaping, optical information processing, security, anticounterfeiting and many other related areas.
Metasurface-based structural color: fundamentals and applications
LI Mo-xin, WANG Dan-yan, ZHANG Cheng
2021, 14(4): 900-926. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0108
In contrast to conventional color filters exploiting chemical colorant pigments, structural color filters based on micro/nano patterns have potential applications in various fields including optical decoration, displaying, imaging, and photovoltaics, owing to their advantages of high purity, brightness, long-term stability, and environmental friendliness. Thanks to the continuing development of nanofabrication technology, metasurface-based structural color filters with different working mechanisms have been demonstrated. In this review, we will first introduce structural colors based on three representative types of resonance principles, then we will elaborate various applications of structural color filters including full-color display, holographic imaging, information encryption and colored photovoltaic devices. We conclude the review by discussing perspectives of metasurface-based structural colors.
Progress of two-dimensional photonic topological insulators
LIU Hui, WANG Hao-nan, XIE Bo-yang, CHENG Hua, TIAN Jian-guo, CHEN Shu-qi
2021, 14(4): 935-954. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0076
Inspired by the exciting discovery of topological insulators in condensed-state physics, some topological physics phenomena, such as integer quantum Hall effect, quantum spin Hall effect, topological semimetals and higher order topological insulators, have successively realized in photonic system. Thanks to the clean energy band, simple design and accurate production of samples, the optical system has gradually become an important platform for studying physical topological models and novel topological phenomena. Topological photonics provides new methods to manipulate light fields and photons. The topological protected edge states can realize the propagation of photons which immune to material defects and impurity. Such ideal transport states are unprecedented in traditional optics, which may lead to radical changes in novel integrated optical devices. In this review, based on the two-dimensional optical system, we briefly introduce the exciting developments of topological photonics, such as photonic integer quantum Hall effect, photonic quantum spin Hall effect, photonic Floquet topological insulators, topological Anderson insulators and photonic higher order topological insulators. We focus on the topological insulators mentioned above and its topological model and novel topological phenomena. Finally, we conclude with the novel topological effects in optics and their applications in novel optical device.
Optical topological characteristics of two dimensional artificial metamaterials
SU Zhao-xian, YAO En-xu, HUANG Ling-ling, WANG Yong-tian
2021, 14(4): 955-967. doi: 10.37188/CO.2021-0074
Two dimensional artificial metamaterials, represented by metasurfaces, could control the amplitude, phase, polarization and orbital angular momentum of light, through tailoring the interaction between light and matter. Nowadays, two dimensional artificial metamaterials with nontrivial topological properties have become research focus in optics due to their advantages in robust unidirectional transmission. The topological phase is not only a new degree of freedom to describe matter in the field of condensed matter physics, but also a new parameter to describe optical properties of artificial metamaterials. In this review, the origin of topological photonics and classification for topological properties of two dimensional metamaterials are introduced. The latest progress in topological photonics has also been presented. The summary and prospect of topological metamaterials are given at the end of the review.
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