2010 Vol. 3, No. 1
In this contribution we review our latest achievements of combined experimental and theoretical studies to tailor the properties of optical metamaterials(MMs) at will. We give three examples of metamaterial designs that have been realized by means of electron beam lithography and whose spectroscopic characteristics have been comprehensively investigated. In every case, our experiments are complemented by rigorous numerical simulations. Particular emphasis is put on the significance of such tailored effective properties of optical MMs.
Spontaneously Generated Coherence(SGC) refers to a kind of quantum coherence induced by the process of spontaneous emission. It can greatly affect the dynamics of a quantum system, and accounts for a variety of important phenomena. Many efforts have been devoted to this topic, aiming to investigate the essence of quantum coherence and advanced technologies. However, the existence of SGC needs rigorous requirements which can hardly been fulfilled in atoms placed in a free space. Therefore we must give particular considerations to investigate this coherence experimentally. In this paper, a few interesting phenomena related to SGC are summarized, such as gain without inversion, coherent population trapping, phase sensitive spectra, and modifications of absorption, emission, and refraction. We also review the investigations on the realization of SGC, such as modifying the vacuum, coupling levels with static fields, simulating SGC with coherence induced by coherent fields, and studying SGC in special materials.
This paper overviews some display technologies which play main roles on today's display market. And new technologies which may be used for tomorrow's display technologies have been discussed. New technologies will boost the development of display technologies.
A single metallic nanoslit is employed for investigating the contribution of Surface Plasmon Polaritons(SPPs) to Extraordinary Optical Transmission(EOT) based on rigorous electromagnetic theory and the Spectrum Analysis Method(SAM). Numerical results shows that the SPP is the main factor responsible for the EOT, and a phase singularity is observed.
We present an ultra compact and high resolution free space optical spectrometer and demonstrate it by using FDTD simulations. The miniature interferometer-based spectrometer is a series of submicron phase objects on a polymethyl methacrylate(PMMA) film with a CCD as the detector. The spectrum is obtained by solving a system of simultaneous linear equations. The Tikhonov regularization method is used to achieve a resolution at the picometer level. Compared with conventional spectrometers, the proposed device is low-cost and easy to fabricate due to its simple structure. Furthermore, its compact feature renders the device ideal for miniaturization and integration as the systems in microfluidics architectures and lab-on-chip designs.
There is widespread and strong interest in trying to fabricate a metamaterial in which both the permittivity and permeability are equal to -1 in order to achieve sub-wavelength imaging. Several metamaterial constructs have been proposed with varying degrees of success because of inherent losses, limited bandwidth and scattering from the abstracted circuit elements constituting the artificial material itself. A further limitation is the need to capture evanescent components from the object to be imaged that requires the lens to be located near the object. We have studied the underlying models and constraints that influence the design of a negative index lens and present this analysis as well as reviewing the opportunities. There are inevitable and well-known trade-offs between lens thickness, wavelength, dispersion and absorption. However, these can be characterized both numerically and experimentally, suggesting that a computational imaging approach to the recovery of sub-wavelength features might be effective. Depending on the specific details of the metamaterial employed for imaging, one can consider the data acquired to represent a set of coded apertures.
We propose a novel single-beam multiple 3D optical trapping scheme using higher polarization order axially-symmetric polarized beams in an aplanatic focusing system. We calculate numerically the intensity distribution near the focus which presents a multi-focus-spot pattern and provides the possibility of multiple optical trapping. We also calculate the corresponding gradient force distribution near the focus. Finally we introduce a 3D optical chain by combining the single-beam system with a single diffractive optical element.
A high spatial resolution, phase-sensitive Surface Plasmon Resonance(SPR) sensor based on Extraordinary Optical Transmission(EOT) is proposed to monitor the binding of organic and biological molecules to the silver surface. The 2D nanohole-array configuration is well suited for dense integration in a sensor chip. The optical geometry is collinear, which simplifies the alignment with respect to the traditional Kretschmann arrangement for SPR sensing. Various design parameters of the device have been studied by simulation. The heterodyne technique is used to improve the sensitivity. The optimization results indicate that the sensor has the advantages of achieving high resolution and a wide dynamic range simultaneously.
A novel all-fibre flat-top comb filter based on a high birefringence photonic crystal fibre loop mirror is proposed and demonstrated. We simulate theoretically its output spectra and experimentally realize a flat-top output with a high extinction ratio. Compared to filters consisting of the conventional Panda polarization maintaining fibre, filters based on a high birefringence photonic crystal fibre loop mirror have better temperature stability. This kind of filter can be expected to be used widely in Wavelength-division-multiplexing(WDM) systems in the future.
We report the design and simulation of a dual-band perfect terahertz absorber which is composed of an electric Split-Resonance-Ring(eSRR) layer, polyimide spacer and a metal plate layer. The absorber has two near-unity absorptions near 0502 THz and 0942 THz and both are related to the LC resonance of the eSRR. The results show that the designed terahertz absorber is an excellent electromagnetic wave concentrator. The electromagnetic waves are firstly converged into the spacer and the eSRR layer and are then significantly absorbed.
In this paper, we simulate Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance(LSPR) absorption of periodic Au nano-ring arrays and single Au nanoparticles using the Finite Difference Time Domain(FDTD) method. We choose input plane waves of different wavelengths and discuss the relation between the absorption peak of the Au array and the variable external dielectric constants. It is found that the sensitivity of these sensors based on LSPR is improved compared to the common sensors and the enhancement is caused by the periodical structure. We also investigate the spectrum characteristic of a single Au nanoparticle and discuss the relation between the absorption peak and the size of the nanoparticle.
Arising from the proposed Transmission Line(TL) model for ERR and wire structure, a TL model for a metamaterial absorber is proposed. The S-parameters obtained by this TL model demonstrate the same shapes as the simulation. An investigation of the TL model and average absorption power densities shows that the metamaterial absorber does not simply convert the electromagnetic wave into thermal energy, but concentrate the electromagnetic wave into a small space where it is finally absorbed. This suggests that the metamaterial absorber can be applied to solar cells for the purpose of light trapping.
We report a new type of planar metamaterial consisting of a pair of homogeneous parallel plates separated by a thin medium. Strong magnetic response and negative effective permeability are observed in the materials at wavelengths from 6.9 μm to 5.8 μm. The resonant wavelength and the value of the negative permeability can be tuned by varying the structure dimensions. Such planar metamaterials can be easily fabricated with mature thin film technology and are of great potential for device applications.
An air channel inside a silver metal film is usually used as a typical Channel Plasmon Polariton(CPP) waveguide. This paper presents research on the basic properties of this waveguide using the Finite Difference Time Domain(FDTD) method. The relationship between transmission power and structure of the waveguide is investigated. The simulation results show that the subwavelength trapezoidal CPP waveguide is superior to the rectangle CPP waveguide for controlling SPP radiation loss and enhancing the transmitted power. As a result, if the rectangle CPP waveguide is replaced by a trapezoidal CPP waveguide in certain integrated optical devices, their performance may be improved.