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古代纸质文物科学检测技术综述

阎春生 黄晨 韩松涛 韩秀丽 应超男 杜远东

阎春生, 黄晨, 韩松涛, 韩秀丽, 应超男, 杜远东. 古代纸质文物科学检测技术综述[J]. 中国光学, 2020, 13(5): 936-964. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0010
引用本文: 阎春生, 黄晨, 韩松涛, 韩秀丽, 应超男, 杜远东. 古代纸质文物科学检测技术综述[J]. 中国光学, 2020, 13(5): 936-964. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0010
YAN Chun-sheng, HUANG Chen, HAN Song-tao, HAN Xiu-li, YING Chao-nan, DU Yuan-dong. Review on scientific detection technologies for ancient paper relics[J]. Chinese Optics, 2020, 13(5): 936-964. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0010
Citation: YAN Chun-sheng, HUANG Chen, HAN Song-tao, HAN Xiu-li, YING Chao-nan, DU Yuan-dong. Review on scientific detection technologies for ancient paper relics[J]. Chinese Optics, 2020, 13(5): 936-964. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0010

古代纸质文物科学检测技术综述

doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0010
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(No. 61875172)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    阎春生(1973—),男,山西文水人,博士,副教授,硕士生导师,1994年、1999年于电子科技大学分别获得学士、硕士学位,2003年于清华大学获得博士学位,主要从事激光光谱学、光层析成像技术及近场光学等方面的研究,2019年开始从事古代纸质文物检测与保护方面的研究。E-mail:yancs@zju.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: O43; O65;G262

Review on scientific detection technologies for ancient paper relics

Funds: Supported by National Natural Science Foundtion of China (No. 61875172)
More Information
  • 摘要: 全面论述了古代纸质文物包括纸张原料、墨、印泥和颜料等所涉及的各种现代科技检测技术与方法,主要分为成像法和波谱法两大类。成像法是包括透光、红外、紫外、X射线、中子活化等展示样品表面或内部宏观信息的摄影法,X射线、太赫兹、光相干等展示样品表面之下分层信息的层析成像方法,光学显微镜、扫描电子显微镜、透射电子显微镜、原子力显微镜等展示样品微观信息的显微成像方法。基于波与物质相互作用原理的具有指纹特征的波谱法则包括色谱、质谱、电子顺磁共振波谱、核磁共振波谱、X射线光电子能谱、X射线衍射谱、X射线荧光光谱、分子荧光光谱、拉曼光谱、紫外-可见-近红外-中红外-太赫兹吸收光谱、高光谱等。研究表明,上述技术的综合应用、各取所长和相互印证是揭示纸质文物的制造过程、艺术特征、保存历史、病害情况、真迹与否及如何修复等重要问题的有力手段。
  • 图  1  故宫博物院藏《弘历书习字诗卷》的直射光拍摄图(a)和透射光拍摄图(b)[16]

    Figure  1.  Photographs of direct light (top) and transmitted light (bottom) of the "Hongli Shu Xizi Poems" in the Palace Museum[16]

    图  2  《倭寇图卷》局部(左)及其红外线摄影图(右)[17]

    Figure  2.  Part of "Wako-zukan " (left) and its infrared photography (right)[17]

    图  3  张大千《云山高士图》局部正光摄影图(上)和局部紫外线摄影图(下)[18]

    Figure  3.  Zhang Daqian's partial orthophotograph of Yunshan Gaoshi Picture (top) and partial ultraviolet photograph (bottom)[18]

    图  4  《汝南公主墓志铭》中印章局部原图(左)及X射线摄影图(右)[20]

    Figure  4.  Partial original picture (left) and X-ray photography (right) of the seal in the epitaph of Princess Runan[20]

    图  5  荷兰艺术家扬·斯汀的油画“老人歌唱,年轻人歌唱”原图(a)及其中子活化放射自显影图(b)[21]

    Figure  5.  Original picture of Dutch artist Jan Sting's oil painting " As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe" (top) and his neutron activated radiography (bottom)[21]

    图  6  威尼斯国家历史档案馆折叠多次的单页手稿(a)和1351年装在信封中的遗嘱手稿(b)的X射线CT重建图像[23]

    Figure  6.  X-ray CT reconstruction images of the folded single page manuscript (a) and the closed will manuscript dated 1351 (b) from the National Archives of history of Venice[23]

    图  7  油画原图(a)及其太赫兹层析成像图,深度0−6 mm,间隔0.5 mm (b)[26]

    Figure  7.  oil painting (a) and its terahertz tomography, depth 0−6 mm with an interval of 0.5 mm (b)[26]

    图  8  (a)样品图(油漆层覆盖一个铅笔素描草图);(b)透射太赫兹像;(c)反射太赫兹像[27]

    Figure  8.  (a) Photograph of the sample (paint layers covering a pencil sketch); (b) transmission THz image; (c) reflection THz image.[27]

    图  9  18世纪板画原图(a)及其沿A线段 (b)和B线段(c)的OCT重建图像[29]

    Figure  9.  18th century panel painting (a) and its OCT reconstruction images along line A (b) and B (c)[29]

    图  10  武英殿版《古文渊鉴》残片的染色显微图[33]

    Figure  10.  Stained micrograph of the fragments of Wu Yingdian's "Gu Wenyuan Jian" [33]

    图  11  西夏塔龛千佛图唐卡颜料偏光显微图[35]:(a)边框红;(b) 蓝绿;(c)背景红;(d)白色;(e)蓝黑;(f)黑色

    Figure  11.  Polarized light micrograph for Thousands Buddha Tangka of Xixia Pagoda Niches[35]: (a) red on border; (b) blue green; (c) red on the background; (d) white; (e) blue black; (f) black

    图  12  扫描电子显微镜图:(a)莫高窟107窟疱疹平面图显微图[38];(b) 1588年西班牙书封面显微图[39]

    Figure  12.  Scanning electron microscopy: (a) micrograph of herpes on the 107th hole in Mogao Grottoes[38]; (b) micrograph of the cover of Spanish books in 1588[39]

    图  13  手工封皮纸扫描电子显微镜图像

    Figure  13.  Scanning electron micrograph of manual cover paper

    图  14  法国时期的梵高画:(a) 244/4“三色紫罗兰的篮子”;(b)546/9“高更的肖像”的透射电镜图像[40]

    Figure  14.  Van Gogh's paintings in the French period: (a) 244/4 "Basket of Pansy Violet"; (b) transmission electron micrograph of 546/9 "Portrait of Gauguin"[40].

    图  15  透射电镜照片(×10万)[41]:(a)松烟颗粒;(b)油烟颗粒;(c)炭黑颗粒;(d)古墨颗粒

    Figure  15.  Transmission Electron Microscopy Photo (×100 thousand)[41]: (a) turpentine soot; (b) oil soot; (c) carbon black; (d) ancient ink.

    图  16  含无涂层锐钛矿的亚麻籽油颜料的原子力显微图:(a)室温干燥14天,暗室储存;(b)室温干燥14天,然后紫外光照[45]

    Figure  16.  Atomic force micrograph of linseed oil pigmented with uncoated anatase after (a) drying under ambient conditions for 14 days and dark storage; (b) drying under ambient conditions for 14 days followed by exposure to UV[45].

    图  17  16和18世纪纸样清洁处理前后的高效液相色谱图[49]

    Figure  17.  HPLC chromatograms of papers in the 16th and 18th centuries before and after cleaning[49]

    图  18  18世纪意大利纸的飞行时间二次离子质谱图[63]:质量范围(a) 20−80 m/z;(b) 80−160m/z。

    Figure  18.  Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry of 18th century Italian paper [63]: mass range (a) 20−80 m/z; (b) 80−160 m/z.

    图  19  四种蓝色颜料硫酸蓝、群青蓝、汉蓝和埃及蓝的低频电子顺磁共振波谱[65]

    Figure  19.  LFEPR spectra of the four blue pigments blue vitriol, ultramarine blue, Han blue, and Egyptian blue in paint.[65]

    图  20  1430年意大利米兰古纸的1H高分辨率魔角旋转NMR波谱[68]

    Figure  20.  1H high-resolution magic angle rotating NMR spectrum of Milan ancient paper in 1430[68]

    图  21  18世纪意大利纸X射线光电子能谱图[63]:(a)古纸A和现代纸F的光电子能谱图;(b)$ \mathrm{C}1\mathrm{s} $的曲线拟合图。

    Figure  21.  X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of Italian paper in the 18th century [63]: (a) photoelectron spectroscopy of ancient paper A and modern paper F; (b) curve fitting of C1s.

    图  22  潘玉良油画颜料样品的XRD图[73]

    Figure  22.  XRD pattern of Pan Yuliang's oil paint samples[73]

    图  23  法国印象派画家古斯塔夫·卡勒波特的油画局部及其主要化学元素的分布图[77]

    Figure  23.  French Impressionist painter Gustave Caillebotte's oil painting parts and its main chemical element maps[77]

    图  24  (a)不同年龄纸的荧光光谱;(b) 443 nm荧光峰一次导数值与纸样品年龄的关系;(c) 47种纸的主成分分析[79]

    Figure  24.  (a) Fluorescence spectra of the paper samples with different ages; (b) the relationship between the first-derivative spectral peak at 443 nm and the years of paper samples; (c) principal component analysis based on the fluorescence spectra of all 47 paper samples.[79]

    图  25  (a)手工纸显微拉曼光谱;(b)意大利中世纪纸和现代纸的拉曼光谱[89];(c)纤维素老化降解动力学模型:C-O-C单键含量随1100 cm−1、1376 cm−1拉曼强度之比和老化时间的变化曲线[90]

    Figure  25.  (a) Micro Raman spectroscopy of Chinese handmade paper; (b) comparison between Medieval Paper (Carta de Logu) and Modern paper[89]; (c) the kinetic model of ageing and degradationprocess of cellulose: COC residual percentage of inter‐monomers bonds as a function of ageing time and I1, 100/I1, 376 intensities ratio[90]

    图  26  梵高油画“蓝色花瓶里的花”局部的X射线吸收近边结构谱图[97]

    Figure  26.  X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrum of Van Gogh's oil painting "Flower in blue vase"[97]

    图  27  印度几种现代纸的紫外-可见光谱图[99]

    Figure  27.  UV-Vis spectra of several modern papers in India[99]

    图  28  毕加索的油画《牡丹》(a)及其假彩色图(b),(c)颜料的可见-近红外光谱图:(1)镉黄和朱红;(2)翡翠绿;(3)钴蓝;(4)“棕色颜料”;(5) 锌白;(6)普鲁士蓝;(7)朱红;(8)黄色(锌);(9)红色染料[102]

    Figure  28.  Picasso's "Peony" oil painting (a) and its false color drawing (b), (c) Visible-near infrared spectrum of pigment: (1) cadmium yellow and vermilion, (2) emerald green, (3) cobalt blue, (4) “brown paint,” (5) zinc white, (6) Prussian blue, (7)vermilion, (8) yellow (zinc), (9) red dye[102]

    图  29  印泥中几种颜料(a)和粘合剂(b)的太赫兹吸收光谱[116]

    Figure  29.  THz absorption spectroscopy of several pigments (a) and binders (b) in inkpad[116]

    图  30  《崇庆皇太后八旬万寿图》的局部不同波长高光谱成像图[119]:(a) 453 nm;(b) 980 nm;(c) 1302 nm;(d)前三波长的假彩色合成图;(e)第二主成分图;(f)第三主成分图

    Figure  30.  The local hyperspectral images of different wavelengths in the picture of “Empress Dowager Chongqing’s 80th Birthday Celebration”[119]: (a) 453 nm; (b) 980 nm; (c) 1302 nm; (d) false color composite of the first three wavelengths; (e) second principal component diagram; (f) third principal component diagram

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-01-21
  • 修回日期:  2020-03-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-09-10
  • 刊出日期:  2020-10-01

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