Volume 12 Issue 6
Dec.  2019
Turn off MathJax
Article Contents
WANG Lian, ZHOU Yuan-yuan, ZHOU Xue-jun, CHEN Xiao. Quantum key distribution based on heterogeneous air-water channels with foam-covered irregular sea surfaces[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(6): 1362-1375. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191206.1362
Citation: WANG Lian, ZHOU Yuan-yuan, ZHOU Xue-jun, CHEN Xiao. Quantum key distribution based on heterogeneous air-water channels with foam-covered irregular sea surfaces[J]. Chinese Optics, 2019, 12(6): 1362-1375. doi: 10.3788/CO.20191206.1362

Quantum key distribution based on heterogeneous air-water channels with foam-covered irregular sea surfaces

doi: 10.3788/CO.20191206.1362

National Natural Science Foundation of China 61302099

More Information
  • Corresponding author: ZHOU Yuan-yuan, E-mail:yyzhou516@163.com
  • Received Date: 18 Jan 2019
  • Rev Recd Date: 18 Feb 2019
  • Publish Date: 01 Dec 2019
  • For air-water Quantum Key Distribution(QKD), considering the effects of sea breeze, irregular sea surfaces with foam, the complicacy and variety of air-water channels and multiple scattering processes of the polarized quantum state, a heterogeneous air-water channel composite model is established. Based on this, the theoretical model of the error rate of air-water QKD systems is improved. Then, through a polarization vector Monte Carlo simulation, the transmission characteristics of photons in heterogeneous air-water channels and the overall transmission performance of air-water QKDs under different marine environments are analyzed in detail. The results show that heterogeneous air-water channels under clear seawater conditions can achieve a key distribution of 100 meters underwater, but the increase of wind speed and transmission distance will lead to an increase in the photon depolarization ratio and a decrease in fidelity, thereby increasing the polarization error rate. Meanwhile, the rise of wind speed and foam layer thickness adds the quantum error rate of air-water QKD systems and decreases the key generation rate and transmission distance. Both of these factors increase with an increase in signal wavelength. When the wavelength is 532 nm and the channel changes from best(no wind and foam) to worst(storm and foam layer thickness of 6 cm) conditions, the underwater transmission distance is shortened from 120.8 m to 85 m. It can guarantee a 100 m safety depth in underwater vehicles and alternate contingencies such as dragging the buoy can further increase the safety distance of air-water QKD. Therefore, this paper verifies the feasibility of a decoy QKD in a heterogeneous air-water channel with a foam-irregular sea surface and acts as a significant reference for future technologies in air-water integrated quantum communication links.


  • loading
  • [1]
    张冬辰, 周吉.军事通信[M]. 2版.北京:国防工业出版社, 2008.

    ZHANG D CH, ZHOU J. Military Communications[M]. 2nd ed. Beijing:National Defense Industry Press, 2008.(in Chinese)
    LANZAGORTA M. Underwater Communications[M]. California:Morgan & Claypool, 2012.
    BENNETT C H, BRASSARD G. Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing[C]. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing, IEEE, 1984: 175-179.
    LO H K, CURTY M, QI B. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution[J]. Physical Review Letters, 2012, 108(13):130503. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.130503
    KORZH B, LIM C C W, HOULKANN R, et al.. Provably secure and practical quantum key distribution over 307 km of optical fibre[J]. Nature Photonics, 2015, 9(3):163-168. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=233b7b241043c7e2d29bac9051c3d62e
    YIN H L, CHEN T Y, YU Z W, et al.. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution over a 404 km optical fiber[J]. Physical Review Letters, 2016, 117(19):190501. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.190501
    LIU L, GUO F ZH, WEN Q Y. Practical passive decoy state measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with unstable sources[J]. Scientific Reports, 2017, 7(1):11370. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09367-y
    彭承志, 潘建伟.量子科学实验卫星—"墨子号"[J].中国科学院院刊, 2016, 31(9):1096-1104. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=zgkxyyk201609015

    PENG CH ZH, PAN J W. Quantum science experimental satellite "Micius"[J]. Bulletin of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2016, 31(9):1096-1104.(in Chinese) http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=zgkxyyk201609015
    YIN J, CAO Y, LI Y H, et al.. Satellite-to-ground entanglement-based quantum key distribution[J]. Physical Review Letters, 2017, 119(20):200501. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.200501
    LIAO SH K, YONG H L, LIU CH, et al.. Long-distance free-space quantum key distribution in daylight towards inter-satellite communication[J]. Nature Photonics, 2017, 11(8):509-513. doi: 10.1038/nphoton.2017.116
    LIAO SH K, CAI W Q, LIU W Y, et al.. Satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution[J]. Nature, 2017, 549(7670):43-47. doi: 10.1038/nature23655
    ZHAI P W, KATTAWAR G W, YANG P. Impulse response solution to the three-dimensional vector radiative transfer equation in atmosphere-ocean systems.Ⅱ.the hybrid matrix operator-Monte Carlo method[J]. Applied Optics, 2008, 47(8):1063-1071. doi: 10.1364/AO.47.001063
    魏安海.光脉冲在大气-海水混合信道中传输特性研究[D].西安: 中国科学院研究生院(西安光学精密机械研究所), 2014.

    WEI A H. Simulative study of optical pulse propagation properties in atmosphere-seawater hybrid channel[D]. Xi'an: Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics Chinese Academy of Science, 2014.(in Chinese)
    李祥震, 苗希彩, 亓晓, 等.复杂海况下激光气-海信道传输特性[J].光学学报, 2018, 38(3):0301002. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=gxxb201803023

    LI X ZH, MIAO X C, QI X, et al.. Laser atmosphere-seawater channel transmission characteristics under complicated sea conditions[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2018, 38(3):0301002.(in Chinese) http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=gxxb201803023
    周飞, 雍海林, 李东东, 等.基于不同介质间量子密钥分发的研究[J].物理学报, 2014, 63(14):140303. doi: 10.7498/aps.63.140303

    ZHOU F, YONG H L, LI D D, et al.. Study on quantum key distribution betweem different media[J]. Acta Physica Sinica, 2014, 63(14):140303.(in Chinese) doi: 10.7498/aps.63.140303
    UHLMANN J, LANZAGORTA M, VENEGAS-ANDRACA S E. Quantum communications in the maritime environment[C]. OCEANS 2015-MTS/IEEE Washington, IEEE, 2015.
    SHI P, ZHAO SH CH, LI W D, et al.. Feasibility of underwater free space quantum key distribution[J]. arXiv preprint arXiv: arXiv: 1402.4666, 2014.
    SHI P, ZHAO SH CH, GU Y J, et al.. Channel analysis for single photon underwater free space quantum key distribution[J]. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 2015, 32(3):349-356. doi: 10.1364/JOSAA.32.000349
    JI L, GAO J, YANG A L, et al.. Towards quantum communications in free-space seawater[J]. Optics Express, 2017, 25(17):19795-19806. doi: 10.1364/OE.25.019795
    王潋, 周媛媛, 周学军, 等.泡沫覆盖不规则海面的空-水量子密钥分发[J].光学学报, 2018, 38(10):1027002. http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=gxxb201810045

    WANG L, ZHOU Y Y, ZHOU X J, et al.. Air-water quantum key distribution on irregular sea surface covered with foams[J]. Acta Optica Sinica, 2018, 38(10):1027002.(in Chinese) http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=gxxb201810045
    GJERSTAD K I, STAMNES J J, HAMRE B, et al.. Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinate simulations of irradiances in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system[J]. Applied Optics, 2003, 42(15):2609-2622. doi: 10.1364/AO.42.002609
    WU J. Bubble flux and marine aerosol spectra under various wind velocities[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research:Oceans, 1992, 97(C2):2327-2333. doi: 10.1029/91JC02568
    亓晓.泡沫覆盖气-海界面的激光传输特性[D].西安: 西安电子科技大学, 2015: 46-48.

    QI X. Propagation characteristics of laser beam traversing the air-sea interface with foams[D]. Xi'an: Xidian University, 2015: 46-48.(in Chinese)
    黄文超.蓝绿激光通过粗糙海面的传输特性研究[D]: 西安: 西安电子科技大学, 2012;

    HUANG W CH. Study of the character of blue-green laser transmission through sea surface[D]. Xi'an: Xidian University, 2012.(in Chinese)
    GOOCH J W. Snell's Law[M]. New York:Springer, 2011:673-675.
    李景镇.光学手册[M].西安:陕西科学技术出版社, 2010.

    LI J ZH. Handbook of Optics[M]. Xi'an:Shanxi Science and Technology Press, 2010.(in Chinese)
    ZENG ZH Q, FU SH, ZHANG H H, et al., A survey of underwater optical wireless communications[J]. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 2017, 19(1):204-238.
    GAWDI Y J. Underwater free space optics[D]. Raleigh: North Carolina State University, 2006.
    JOHNSON L J, GREEN R J, LEESON M S. Underwater optical wireless communications:depth dependent variations in attenuation[J]. Applied Optics, 2013, 52(33):7867-7873. doi: 10.1364/AO.52.007867
    ZHAI P W, HU Y S, CHOWDHARY J, et al.. A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface[J]. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 2010, 111(7-8):1025-1040. doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2009.12.005
    WU Z S, WANG Y P. Electromagnetic scattering for multilayered sphere: recursive algorithms[J]. Radio Science, 1991, 26(6):1393-1401. doi: 10.1029/91RS01192
    TSANG L, DING K H, ZHANG G F, et al.. Backscattering enhancement and clustering effects of randomly distributed dielectric cylinders overlying a dielectric half space based on Monte-Carlo simulations[J]. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 1995, 43(5):488-499. doi: 10.1109/8.384193
    KALOS M H, JACQUES S L. Monte Carlo Methods[M]. New Jersey:John Wiley & Sons, 2008.
    ZHOU Y H, YU Z W, WANG X B. Tightened estimation can improve the key rate of measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution by more than 100%[J]. Physical Review A, 2014, 89(5):052325. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.052325
  • 加载中


    通讯作者: 陈斌, bchen63@163.com
    • 1. 

      沈阳化工大学材料科学与工程学院 沈阳 110142

    1. 本站搜索
    2. 百度学术搜索
    3. 万方数据库搜索
    4. CNKI搜索

    Figures(11)  / Tables(1)

    Article views(1390) PDF downloads(32) Cited by()
    Proportional views


    DownLoad:  Full-Size Img  PowerPoint