Volume 10 Issue 1
Jan.  2017
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QIN Hua, HUANG Yong-dan, SUN Jian-dong, ZHANG Zhi-peng, YU Yao, LI Xiang, SUN Yun-fei. Terahertz-wave devices based on plasmons in two-dimensional electron gas[J]. Chinese Optics, 2017, 10(1): 51-67. doi: 10.3788/CO.20171001.0051
Citation: QIN Hua, HUANG Yong-dan, SUN Jian-dong, ZHANG Zhi-peng, YU Yao, LI Xiang, SUN Yun-fei. Terahertz-wave devices based on plasmons in two-dimensional electron gas[J]. Chinese Optics, 2017, 10(1): 51-67. doi: 10.3788/CO.20171001.0051

Terahertz-wave devices based on plasmons in two-dimensional electron gas

doi: 10.3788/CO.20171001.0051

National Natural Science Foundation of China 61271157

National Natural Science Foundation of China 61505242

National Natural Science Foundation of China 61401456

National Natural Science Foundation of China 61401297

Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province BK20140283

National Program on Key Basic Research Projects of China G2009CB929303

Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences KJCX2-EW-705

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  • Corresponding author: QIN Hua, E-mail:hqin2007@sinano.ac.cn
  • Received Date: 12 Sep 2016
  • Rev Recd Date: 11 Oct 2016
  • Publish Date: 01 Feb 2017
  • Solid-state terahertz plasma devices are becoming one of the important research areas in which both solid-state microwave/millimeter-wave electronics and semiconductor laser technologies are being developed and merged towards the terahertz frequency regime. In this review, we introduce the manipulation, excitation and probing of two-dimensional-electron-gas (2DEG) plasmons in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, and report the recent progresses in the implementation of plasmon physics in terahertz detectors, modulators and emitters. The coupling between the plasmon modes and the terahertz electromagnetic waves in free space are realized by using grating coupler, antenna and terahertz Fabry-Pérot cavity which further modulates the terahertz electromagnetic modes and enhances the coupling. The dispersion relationship of gate-controlled plasmon modes are verified in grating-coupled 2DEG. Strong coupling between the plasmon modes and the terahertz cavity modes and hence the formation of plasmon-polariton modes are realized in a grouping-coupled 2DEG embedded in a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Based on the same grating-coupled 2DEG, terahertz modulation with high modulation depth and terahertz plasmon emission are observed. In antenna-coupled 2DEG field-effect channel, both resonant and non-resonant excitation of localized plasmon modes are observed by probing the terahertz photocurrent/voltage. A terahertz self-mixing model is developed for antenna-coupled field-effect terahertz detector and provides a guideline for the design and optimization of high-sensitivity terahertz detectors. Our studies indicate that room-temperature, high-speed and high-sensitivity terahertz detectors and the focal-plane arrays can be developed by using the non-resonant plasmon excitation in antenna-coupled field-effect channel. However, the high damping rate of solid-state plasma wave is yet the main hurdle to overcome for plasmon terahertz emitters and modulators both of which rely on the resonant plasmon excitation. The formation of high-quality-factor plasmon cavity including the solid-state plasma physics, manipulation of the boundary conditions of plasmon cavity, utilization of new high-electron-mobility two-dimensional electronic materials and high-quality, small-mode-volume terahertz resonant cavity, etc. would be the focus of future research.


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