Volume 10 Issue 1
Jan.  2017
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ZHANG Lei, LIU Shuo, CUI Tie-jun. Theory and application of coding metamaterials[J]. Chinese Optics, 2017, 10(1): 1-12. doi: 10.3788/CO.20171001.0001
Citation: ZHANG Lei, LIU Shuo, CUI Tie-jun. Theory and application of coding metamaterials[J]. Chinese Optics, 2017, 10(1): 1-12. doi: 10.3788/CO.20171001.0001

Theory and application of coding metamaterials

doi: 10.3788/CO.20171001.0001
Funds:

National Natural Science Foundation of China 61571117

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  • Corresponding author: CUI Tie-jun, E-mail:tjcui@seu.edu.cn
  • Received Date: 14 Sep 2016
  • Rev Recd Date: 27 Sep 2016
  • Publish Date: 01 Feb 2017
  • In this paper, we review the recent progress on coding metamaterial, digital metamaterial and programmable metamaterial, and discuss their capacities in manipulating the electromagnetic (EM) waves in real time and constructing the multi-functional devices. First, we present 1-bit coding metamaterials that are composed of only two types of unit cells with 0 and π phase responses, named as '0' and '1' elements, respectively. By encoding '0' and '1' elements with controlled sequences, we can manipulate EM waves and realize different functionalities. The concept of coding metamaterials can be extended from 1-bit coding to 2-bit coding or higher. Second, we introduce a unique metamaterial particle that has either 0' or 1' response electrically controlled by a biased diode. Based on this particle, we present digital metamaterials with unit cells that possess either 0' or 1' state. Using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), we realize the digital controls over the coding metamaterial, thereby realizing a programmable metamaterial. Finally, we study the manipulations to terahertz waves using the coding metamaterial, such as to produce wideband diffusions of terahertz waves, achieving the efficient reductions of radar cross sections (RCSs), as well as to propose anisotropic coding metamaterials, realizing distinct coding behaviors for different polarizations. The measured results are in good agreements with the simulated results, demonstrating the powerful abilities of coding metamaterials to control EM waves. The property of coding metamaterials to manipulate EM waves can be used for designing beam splitter, realizing anomalous reflections and polarization conversions, and reducing RCSs of metallic objects in wide frequency bands.

     

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