In order to meet the leaser guiding requirements, such as large FOV, high linearity detecting and so on, the working principle and characteristics of four-quadrant detector are introduced based on the application requirements of laser-guided bombs. Spot size, energy uniformity, linearity, detection range and other parameters which influence detection accuracy are analyzed. Based on the system requirements, a reasonable structure type of optical system is selected, and optical system design and machine design are completed. Distortion, spot diagram, footprint and geometric encircled energy are used to evaluate the system performance, and the effects of target size and detection distance on spot size of the guidance system are presented. Test results show that the total FOV is ±20°; the linear FOV is ±10°; the detectable target size is 1.5~2.4 m; the detectable detection range is 50 m~4 km and angle detecting accuracy is better than 0.2°, which meet the needs of laser guidance.