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光学自由曲面自适应干涉检测研究新进展

张磊 吴金灵 刘仁虎 俞本立

张磊, 吴金灵, 刘仁虎, 俞本立. 光学自由曲面自适应干涉检测研究新进展[J]. 中国光学, 2021, 14(2): 227-244. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0126
引用本文: 张磊, 吴金灵, 刘仁虎, 俞本立. 光学自由曲面自适应干涉检测研究新进展[J]. 中国光学, 2021, 14(2): 227-244. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0126
ZHANG Lei, WU Jin-ling, LIU Ren-hu, YU Ben-li. Research advances in adaptive interferometry for optical freeform surfaces[J]. Chinese Optics, 2021, 14(2): 227-244. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0126
Citation: ZHANG Lei, WU Jin-ling, LIU Ren-hu, YU Ben-li. Research advances in adaptive interferometry for optical freeform surfaces[J]. Chinese Optics, 2021, 14(2): 227-244. doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0126

光学自由曲面自适应干涉检测研究新进展

doi: 10.37188/CO.2020-0126
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(No. 61705002,No. 61675005,No. 61905001,No. 41875158);安徽省自然科学基金(No. 1808085QF198,No. 1908085QF276);安徽大学科研启动项目(No. J01003208);国家重点研发计划(No. 2016YFC0301900,No. 2016YFC0302202)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张磊:张 磊(1987—),男,安徽舒城人,博士,副教授,2016年于浙江大学获得博士学位,主要从事非球面/自由曲面检测,干涉仪研制及应用,结构光成像,光学设计等方面的研究。E-mail:optzl@ahu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TQ171.65; TN247; TH741

Research advances in adaptive interferometry for optical freeform surfaces

Funds: Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61705002, No. 61675005, No. 61905001, No. 41875158); Anhui Natural Science Foundation (No. 1808085QF198, No. 1908085QF276); Research project of Anhui University (No. J01003208); National key Research and Development Program (No. 2016YFC0301900, No. 2016YFC0302202)
More Information
  • 摘要: 光学自由曲面因其表面自由度较多而难于进行检测。干涉检测法具有高精度非接触的特点,但传统干涉仪中的静态补偿器在自由曲面加工过程中未知面形不断变化的情况下,难以实现原位检测。因此,可编程控制的大动态范围自适应补偿器成为近年来自由曲面干涉检测中的研究热点。结合课题组在自由曲面自适应干涉检测领域的工作,介绍了光学自由曲面自适应干涉检测的最新研究进展,详细分析了基于可变形镜和空间光调制器的自适应干涉检测技术,介绍了针对干涉图目标的自适应控制算法,总结了两大类自适应检测方法的优点以及发展瓶颈,并对未来自由曲面的自适应检测技术进行了展望。
  • 图  1  基于LC-SLM的透镜表面(球面)光学干涉检测[32]

    Figure  1.  Interferometry of a lens surface (sphere) based on LC-SLM[32]

    图  2  LC-SLM替代泰曼格林干涉仪的参考镜时的薄膜检测结果。(a)补偿前干涉图,(b)LC-SLM产生的参考相位,(c)补偿后的干涉图,(d)SLM波前调制量[33]

    Figure  2.  Thin-film interferometry results when LC-SLM replaces the reference mirror in the Twyman-Green interferometer. (a) The pre-compensated interferogram, (b) the reference phase generated by the LC-SLM, (c) the compensated interferogram, (d) the final detection result[33]

    图  3  基于铁基LC-SLM的可编程二元相位全息图应用于干涉检测[36]

    Figure  3.  A programmable binary phase hologram based on ferroelectric LC-SLM applied to interferometry[36]

    图  4  基于SLM的自适应波前干涉仪对大面形误差自由曲面检测示意图。(a)利用静态零位镜对自由曲面进行的常规检测;(b)全孔径干涉图中部分条纹不能分辨;(c)表面面形误差分布具有部分数据缺失;(d)基于SLM的自由曲面检测;(e)局部区域的初始不能分辨干涉图;(f)被SLM补偿的局部区域的最终干涉图;(g)局部区域的曲面面形误差;(h)全孔径曲面面形误差图拼接结果[38]

    Figure  4.  Illustration of the SLM-based Adaptive Wave-front Interferometer (AWI) for freeform surfaces with severe surface figure error. (a) The conventional test of a freeform surface utilizing a static null. (b) The full aperture interferogram when the upper region cannot be resolved by the interferometer. (c) The surface figure error map when the upper region is not available. (d) The SLM-based AWI. (e) The initial interferogram of the local region. (f) The final interferogram of the local region nulled by the SLM. (g) The surface figure error of the local region. (h) The full aperture surface figure error map stitching result[38]

    图  5  自适应补偿过程中检测干涉条纹密度变化[38]

    Figure  5.  The variation in interferogram density during adaptive compensation[38]

    图  6  利用LC-SLM作为可重构的多级干涉型计算全图产生对自由曲面进行全口径零位检测。(a)准直光入射,(b)汇聚(发散)光入射[39]

    Figure  6.  LC-SLM is used as a reconfigurable multistage interferometric CGH to perform a full-aperture null test on the freeform surface, with (a) the collimating light incident and (b) the converging (divergent) light incident[39]

    图  7  利用可移动非球面零位镜与LC-SLM组合补偿器实现自由曲面大动态范围零位检测[40]

    Figure  7.  Schematic layout of the flexible null metrology system for freeform surfaces using a Refractive Aspheric Null Lens (RANL) and a LC-SLM[40]

    图  8  基于大调制量的SLM的零位检测结构

    Figure  8.  The null test layout in the optical design with the SLM

    图  9  基于薄膜DM的非球面动态干涉检测。(a)干涉检测系统布局;(b)驱动电压与DM反射波前PV的模型预测值和实际测量值之间的关系;(c)不同驱动电压下DM全口径形变量(截面)[47]

    Figure  9.  Aspheric dynamic interferometer based on a thin film DM. (a) Layout of the system; (b) the relationship between the model predicted value and the actual measured value for PV of the DM- reflected wavefront with applied voltage and (c) the DM’s full aperture shapes (section) under different driving voltages[47]

    图  10  利用DM配合Offner补偿器进行φ多项式反射镜检测。(a)系统布局;(b)DM形变产生及测量系统[49]

    Figure  10.  Test of a φ polynomial reflector with a DM and an Offner compensator. (a) System layout; (b) DM deformation generation and measurement system[49]

    图  11  测量未知自由曲面的自适应零位干涉检测方法[50]

    Figure  11.  Schematic of adaptive metrology system layout[50]

    图  12  光学自由曲面检测的自适应偏振干涉仪[55]。(a)系统布局;(b)系统偏振设计

    Figure  12.  Adaptive polarization interferometer for optical freeform surface metrology[55]. (a) System layout; (b) polarization design

    图  13  可配合商用干涉仪的光学自由曲面自适应偏振干涉仪[56]

    Figure  13.  The optical freeform surface adaptive polarization interferometer that can cooperate with commercial interferometers[56]

    图  14  双DM级联的方式进行未知自由曲面自适应检测[61]。(a)系统布局;(b)系统偏振设计

    Figure  14.  Adaptive interferometry of unknown freeform surfaces with cascaded DMs[61]. (a) System layout; (b) polarization design

    图  15  基于自适应环腔补偿器的自由曲面干涉仪[64]。(a)系统布局;(b)偏振设计

    Figure  15.  Freeform surface interferometer based on Adaptive Ring-Cavity Compensator (ARCC)[64]. (a) System layout; (b) polarization design

    图  16  自由曲面检测干涉图常见的3种局部区域难以分辨甚至条纹缺失情形。(a)、(b)、(c)分别为文献[71]、[61]、[50]所述情形

    Figure  16.  Freeform surface interferograms are generally difficult to identify in local areas and are even missing their fringe. (a) in Ref. [71], (b) in Ref. [61], (c) in Ref. [50].

    图  17  SPGD搜索过程中,以优化指标J作为条纹恢复判据的一维演示。(a)为条纹缺失状态,(b)为优化中间过程,(c)为最终条纹及其J值[50]

    Figure  17.  One-dimensional demonstration showing the judgment value J as the fringe restoration criterion during the SPGD search process. (a) The case without the fringe, (b) the middle of the restoration process, and (c) the final fringe with its J value[50].

    图  18  实验中优化收敛曲线。(a) SPGD算法的收敛曲线(第二步) ;(b) 最后一步采用牛顿迭代算法时的收敛曲线;(c) 最后一步采用SPGD算法时的收敛曲线[72]

    Figure  18.  Experimental convergence curves between the second and final steps. (a) The convergence curve using the SPGD algorithm (the second step); (b) the convergence curve using the Newton iteration algorithm in the final step; (c) the convergence curve using the SPGD algorithm in the final step[72]

    图  19  MV-GA和SSD-SPGD算法对比[71]。(a) 500次实验中MV-GA和SSD-SPGD算法优化后的目标函数值(最终干涉图中不可分辨条纹子区域的像素数),(b) MV-GA法中500个试验目标函数值的均值变化,(c) SSD-SPGD算法500次试验目标函数值的均值随迭代次数的变化

    Figure  19.  Comparison of the MV-GA and SSD-SPGD algorithms[71]. (a) The objective function values optimized by MV-GA and SSD-SPGD in 500 experiments. (b) Variation of the mean value & standard deviation of the 500 trials’ objective function values with a generation number for the MV-GA method. (c) Variation of the mean value & standard deviation of the 500 trials’ objective function values with the iteration number for the SSD-SPGD method.

    表  1  相关文献研究中使用的SLM参数及自由曲面检测指标

    Table  1.   SLM parameters used in relevant literatures and freeform surface detection indexes

    口径/mm像素数像素尺寸 (μm/pixel)补偿自由曲面偏离度/μmrms精度/nm
    SLM in [32]10×10640×480100×300~1~6
    SLM in [33]20×151024×76819~12~16
    SLM in [36]R=13.65R=50013.65~2 rad~28
    SLM in [40]36.8×27.61024×76836~15~20
    SLM in [41]9.224160×24643.74~150~50
      注:文献[41]中rms精度0.08λ为SLM波前量化误差,真实自由曲面检测误差目前无实验报道。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  相关文献研究中使用的DM参数及自由曲面检测指标

    Table  2.   DM parameters used in relevant literatures and freeform surface detection indexes

    型号口径/mm驱动器数目补偿自由曲面偏离度/μmrms精度/nm
    DM in [49]MiraoTM 52-e1552//
    DM in [50]AlpaoTM DM521552~10/
    DM in [55, 56]AlpaoTM DM882088~172
    DM in [61]AlpaoTM DM88 &DM97-2520&2597/88~408
    DM in [64]AlpaoTM DM972597~409
      注:补偿自由曲面偏离度仅统计DM补偿部分,不包括配合的零位镜补偿部分。
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-07-17
  • 修回日期:  2020-08-17
  • 网络出版日期:  2020-10-14
  • 刊出日期:  2021-04-01

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